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Explotation of the groundwater ressources requires knowledge of the hydrogeology in order to achieve a sustainable management and use of the ressources.
The Danish concept to Groundwater mapping is a comprehensive and efficient framework to aquire sufficient and accurate knowledge on the groundwater ressources. Groundwater mapping consists of several activities to collect, process and combine surface and subsurface data of an area. Depending on existing knowledge and data, different elements within the framework can be relevant for at specific project.
The relevant data consist of geophysical, geological, hydrogeological, hydrological data, geochemistry and land use data. The processing provides a hydrogeological model and by combining groundwater modeling with pollution risks vulnerable groundwater ressources can be mapped and used for designing sustainable groundwater abstraction. The surveys will result in a huge amount of data and an important part of the Danish concept is to offer relevant databases and specialized software. The quality of the data is very important and quality control systems together with the right specifications are also included in the concept.
The overall timeframe for conducting a groundwater mapping will depend on the area size and the number of activities included in the project. It also depends on the requirements for drilling campains to verify the geophysical survey. However data collection including surveys and processing, followed by modeling and reporting can be conducted within ½-2 years.
The project management is provided to ensure the project is completed according to specification, plans and agreements. There will be focus on collaboration, finances and time throughout the project. To achieve flow, project management will constantly focus on those activities that are located further into the future.
Capacity building is an ongoing process through which individuals, groups,organisations and societies enhance their ability to understand and conduct elements of groundwater mapping.
The necessary IT infrastructure is part of the overall solution. Servers and software are offered as part of the project.
In order to carry out a project as smoothly as possible a local office will be established or an agreement will be made with a local geological specialist company. The local office will handle any customs cleares, necessary authorizations and local laws.The office also serves as the basis for cooperation with local partners.
Provide an inception report to point out relevant elements in a groundwater mapping project. This also includes identification of local stakeholders and partners.
Factfinding on existing data and information relevant for the groundwater ressources – data on geochemistry, geology, hydrogeology, land use, surface waters, water use, pumping and pollution.
SkyTEM airborne survey combined with other relevant geophysical metodes to provide large scale mapping of the subsurface electrical resistivity and converting it into hydrogeological information.
In situ information on geology and hydrogeology is acquired through the planning and execution of programs for drilling, logging and pumping tests. Monitoring campaigns also includes measurements of groundwater levels and development of map of the water level.
By collecting and analysing groundwater samples, the chemical composition is revealed. The nature of the impact that groundwater has been exposed to on its way down through the soil is described by combining information on land use and pollution with geology.
Geological and geophysical data are interpreted into a geological model. The geological frame is expanded using af conceptual understanding into a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model combines data and assumptions in order to achieve and understand the flow regime.
3D groundwater modeling is used with the results of the chemical, geological and hydrogeological mapping to achieve a better understanding of water balances, groundwater recharge and flow patterns and transport times. The groundwater model constitutes subsequently a tool for testing different strategies for the exploitation and management of groundwater resources.
The work and findings carried out are reported and documented in comprehensive reports. The complete groundwater mapping will result in designation of groundwater resources and their vulnerability. Recommendations on sustainable groundwater management wil be given in the reports.
Managing and quality assurance of collected and existing data is done using databases – eg. geological, geophysical and geochemical databases. Specifications and design of the databases, quality systems is provided.
Depending on existing data and knowledge the further investigation is designed for optimal results. Design includes choice and description of methodology to conduct investigations.